My Windows desktop is messy with many files of different types here and there, therefore I thought of writing a program to organize it, and other directories too, for me. Here is my code:

import os
import shutil

class File:
    """Represents a computer file.

    attributes: path, name, extension
    def __init__(self, path):
        """Inintializes a File object.

        file_path: str
        if os.path.isfile(path):
            self.path = path
            self.name = os.path.basename(path)
            self.extension = os.path.splitext(self.path)[1].lower()
            raise FileNotFoundError("This is not a valid file")

    def is_document(self):
        """Returns whether file is a document."""
        extensions = ('.htm', '.docx', '.docm', '.doc', '.dotx',
                    '.dotm', '.pdf', '.xps', '.rtf',
                    '.txt', '.xml', '.odt', '.wps', '.accdb',
                    '.mdb', '.adp', '.xlsx', '.xlsm', '.xls',
                    '.xlsb', '.xltx', '.xltm', '.xlt', '.htm'
                    '.csv', '.prn', '.dif', '.ods', '.xlam',
                    '.slk', '.pptx', '.pptm', '.ppt', '.potx',
                    '.potm', '.pot', '.ppsx', '.ppsm', '.epub')
        return self.extension in extensions

    def is_photo(self):
        """Returns whether file is a photo."""
        extensions = ('.png', '.jpeg', '.jpg')
        return self.extension in extensions

    def is_media(self):
        """Returns whether file is a media file."""
        extensions = ('.mp3', '.mp4', '.flv', '.amr', '.mpg', '.avi', '.mov', '.webm', '.rm')
        return self.extension in extensions

    def is_executable(self):
        """Returns whether file is an exeutable."""
        return self.extension == '.exe'

    def is_archive(self):
        """Returns whether file is a compressed file."""
        extensions = ('.rar', '.zip')
        return self.extension in extensions

    def type(self):
        """Returns a string representing the type of file."""
        if self.is_document():
            return 'document'
        elif self.is_photo():
            return 'photo'
        elif self.is_media():
            return 'media'
        elif self.is_executable():
            return 'executable'
        elif self.is_archive():
            return 'archive'
            return 'other'

    def move(self, other):
        """Moves the file to a given directory."""

            shutil.move(self.path, other)

            print('Was not moved successfully: ', self.path)

class Folder:
    """Represents a computer folder.

    attributes: path, name
    def __init__(self, path):
        """Initializes a Folder object.

        path: str

        if not os.path.isdir(path):
            raise FileNotFoundError(path + ' is not a valid directory')

            self.path = path
            self.name = os.path.basename(path)

    def is_empty(self):
        """Returns whether a folder is empty."""
        return os.listdir(self.path) == []

def dir_path(message):
    """Asks the user to enter a string specifing
    a directory.

    message: str

    Returns: str
    while True:
        dir_path = input(message)


        if os.path.isdir(dir_path):
            return dir_path

        print('Not a valid directory. Try again.\n')

def move_files(source, target):
    """Moves files in a given directory to folders working as
    categories, based on their type."""

    categories = ('Document', 'Executable', 'Archive', 'Media', 'Photo', 'Other')
    create_folders(target, categories)

    for item in os.listdir(source):
        full_path = os.path.join(source, item)
        if os.path.isfile(full_path):
            file = File(full_path)
            category = os.path.join(target, file.type().title())

            print('Move: ', full_path)


def create_folders(directory, names):
    """Creates one or more folders in a given directory."""
    target = Folder(directory)

        for name in names:
            full_path = os.path.join(directory, name)

    except FileExistsError:
        print(full_path, ': Exists already')

def main():            
    source = dir_path('Path of directory to organize: ')
    name = 'Directory Organizer'
    target = os.path.join(source, name)    
    create_folders(source, (name,))
    move_files(source, target)


if __name__ == '__main__':

In addition to getting my code reviewed I have some questions regarding it:

  • Should I in create_folders use pass instead of printing a message?

  • I thought of writing a function that will categorize files existing in a given a directory based on their type. And will return a dictionary in which key is a string representing a category and value is a list of strings representing paths of files that belong to this category. Then another function will traverse this dictionary and move files. But I thought that this will just slow my code down. Will this be better?

  • Should I care about "access denied errors"?

  • I feel that move_files is not good enough. Am I right? If so how should it be refactored?


1 Answer 1


There is quite a lot of repetition in the way you determine the file type. Plus, this approach does not scale well. What if you would have a dictionary of file type names as keys and a frozenset of extensions as values which you would dynamically transform into a map between an extension and a file type:

    'document': frozenset(['.htm', '.docx', '.docm', '.doc', '.dotx',
                           '.dotm', '.pdf', '.xps', '.rtf',
                           '.txt', '.xml', '.odt', '.wps', '.accdb',
                           '.mdb', '.adp', '.xlsx', '.xlsm', '.xls',
                           '.xlsb', '.xltx', '.xltm', '.xlt', '.htm'
                           '.csv', '.prn', '.dif', '.ods', '.xlam',
                           '.slk', '.pptx', '.pptm', '.ppt', '.potx',
                           '.potm', '.pot', '.ppsx', '.ppsm', '.epub']),
    'photo': frozenset(['.png', '.jpeg', '.jpg']),
    'media': frozenset(['.mp3', '.mp4', '.flv', '.amr', '.mpg', '.avi', '.mov', '.webm', '.rm']),
    'executable': frozenset(['.exe']),
    'archive': frozenset(['.rar', '.zip'])

EXTENSION_TYPES = {value: key 
                   for value in values
                   for key, values in TYPE_EXTENSIONS.items()}

Now, the type() method would simply look like:

def type(self):
    """Returns a string representing the type of file."""
    return EXTENSION_TYPES.get(self.extension, 'other')

And you would not need all the is_*() methods anymore.

  • \$\begingroup\$ I'd go a step further and transform FILE_TYPES into a dictionary with the keys and values inverted. \$\endgroup\$ Feb 27, 2017 at 23:53
  • \$\begingroup\$ @200_success really good idea, I've adjusted the answer appropriately. Thanks! \$\endgroup\$
    – alecxe
    Feb 28, 2017 at 0:06

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