4
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Here is my code:

def read_Coordinates_Atoms2(fileName, only_CA = True):
    '''
    in : PDB file
    out : matrix with coordinates of atoms
    '''
    with open(fileName, 'r') as infile:
        for line in infile :
            if only_CA == True :
                if line.startswith('ATOM') and line[13:15] == 'CA': 
                    try:    # matrix fill-up
                        CoordAtoms = np.vstack([CoordAtoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]]) # np.append
                    except NameError:  # matrix declaration
                        CoordAtoms = np.array([[line[30:38],line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float) 
            else : 
                if line.startswith('ATOM'):
                    try:    # matrix fill-up
                        CoordAtoms = np.vstack([CoordAtoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]]) # np.append
                    except NameError:  # matrix declaration
                        CoordAtoms = np.array([[line[30:38],line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)              
        return CoordAtoms

Is there a more efficient way to do this ? I mean, a way where I don't have to write twice the same lines? I think the code should look more like this :

def foo(file, condition2 = True):
    if condition1 and condition2 :
        # do lots of instructions
    elif condition1 :
        # do the same lots of instructions (but different output)
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  • \$\begingroup\$ As we all want to make our code more efficient or improve it in one way or another, try to write a title that summarizes what your code does, not what you want to get out of a review. Please see How to get the best value out of Code Review - Asking Questions for guidance on writing good question titles. \$\endgroup\$ – BCdotWEB Oct 17 '16 at 10:14
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ You say "but different output", but those two block look exactly the same. \$\endgroup\$ – tokland Oct 17 '16 at 10:44
4
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Seeing that both your blocks are identical, you can be able to merge them using boolean logic.

First thing is that, in each case, you perform line.startswith('ATOM') so put that first.

Second, either you have only_CA being True and you need 'CA' at line[13:15] too, or you have only_CA being False. In other words, you keep the line if either only_CA is False or 'CA' is at line[13:15].

This lets you rewrite your for loop as:

for line in infile:
    if line.startswith('ATOM') and (not only_CA or line[13:15] == 'CA'):
        try:    # matrix fill-up
            CoordAtoms = np.vstack([CoordAtoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]]) # np.append
        except NameError:  # matrix declaration
            CoordAtoms = np.array([[line[30:38],line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float) 

You can also extract out the line parsing at it is somehow repeated:

for line in infile:
    if line.startswith('ATOM') and (not only_CA or line[13:15] == 'CA'):
        data = [line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]
        try:    # matrix fill-up
            CoordAtoms = np.vstack([CoordAtoms, [float(x) for x in data]]) # np.append
        except NameError:  # matrix declaration
            CoordAtoms = np.array([data], float) 

But you can also simplify the whole thing by converting your data to float before the try and feeding np.array data of the correct type:

for line in infile:
    if line.startswith('ATOM') and (not only_CA or line[13:15] == 'CA'):
        data = [float(line[begin:end]) for begin, end in ((30, 38), (38, 46), (46, 54))]
        try:    # matrix fill-up
            CoordAtoms = np.vstack([CoordAtoms, [data]]) # np.append
        except NameError:  # matrix declaration
            CoordAtoms = np.array([data]) 
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4
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I'll approach this more from a StackOverflow numpy efficiency perspective, not the CR styling one.

First simplification:

def read_Coordinates_Atoms2(fileName, only_CA = True):
    '''
    in : PDB file
    out : matrix with coordinates of atoms
    '''
    # appending to a list is more efficient than array concatenation
    coord_list = [] 
    with open(fileName, 'r') as infile:
        for line in infile :
            # looks like you are parsing each line the same
            parsed_line = [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]
            if only_CA == True :
                if line.startswith('ATOM') and line[13:15] == 'CA': 
                    coord_list.append(parsed_line)
            else : 
                if line.startswith('ATOM'):
                    coord_list.append(parsed_line)
    CoordAtoms = np.array(coord_list)              
    return CoordAtoms

Using list append will improve speed more than consolidating the 'ifs'.

Two further changes come to mind:

We can collect all values as strings, and let np.array do the conversion to float all at once. That's a tentative change, and needs to be tested.

We can reword the conditionals. I'm leaving two append blocks because I think it makes the logic clearer. Reworking the conditions so there is only one append statement will not improve speed.

def read_Coordinates_Atoms2(fileName, only_CA = True):
    # ....
    coord_list = [] 
    with open(fileName, 'r') as infile:
        for line in infile :
            # looks like you are parsing each line the same
            parsed_line = [line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]
            if line.startswith('ATOM'):
                if only_CA and line[13:15] == 'CA':
                    coord_list.append(parsed_line)
                else : 
                    coord_list.append(parsed_line)
    CoordAtoms = np.array(coord_list, dtype=float)              
    return CoordAtoms

np.genfromtxt allows you to specify field widths as the delimiter. So an alternative design is to read the whole file as an appropriate structured array, and then filter out the desired elements.

A function like this should do it. I haven't tested it, so I'm sure there are some bugs. I think speed will be similar, unless you are skipping a large number of lines. Both approaches have to read all lines, and that is the main time consumer.

def read_Coordinates_Atoms2(fileName, only_CA = True):
    # ...
    # complicated dtype because you are skipping some columns
    # and it groups the 3 float fields into one array
    dt = [('ATOM','S4'),('skip1',str),('CA','S2'),('skip2',str),('coor',float,(3,))]
    del = [4,9,2,15,8,8,8]
    data = np.genfromtxt(fileName, dtype=dt, delimiter=del)
    idx = data['ATOM']
    data = data[idx]
    if only_CA:
        idx = data['CA']=='CA'
        data = data[idx]
    return data['coor']              

pandas also has a fast and powerful csv reader.

I could test these changes if you give a few sample lines.

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3
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Ok, first, some styling advises:

  1. Function / variable names should be named using snake_case convention. For example, read_Coordinates_Atoms2 will become read_coordinates_atoms2
  2. if only_CA == True can be if only_CA
  3. After else statement you shouldn't have a space
  4. After , you should always have a space
  5. with open(fileName, 'r') as infile can be with open(fileName) as infile. open() opens by default a file in read mode.
  6. Usually, you shouldn't have any spaces around = when declaring a function argument: only_CA = True should be only_CA=True
  7. Use is when comparing strings: line[13:15] == 'CA' should be 'CA' in line[13:15]

So far, with all the above, you'd have this:

def read_coordinates_atoms2(file_name, only_ca=True):
    '''
    in : PDB file
    out : matrix with coordinates of atoms
    '''

    with open(file_name) as infile:
        for line in infile:
            if only_ca:
                if line.startswith('ATOM') and 'CA' in line[13:15]:
                    try:
                        coord_atoms = np.vstack(
                            [coord_atoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]])
                    except NameError:
                        coord_atoms = np.array([[line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)
            else:
                if line.startswith('ATOM'):
                    try:  # matrix fill-up
                        coord_atoms = np.vstack(
                            [coord_atoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]])
                    except NameError:
                        coord_atoms = np.array([[line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)

        return coord_atoms

Follow DRY principle (DON'T REPEAT YOURSELF)

You're doing this twice:

try:
    coord_atoms = np.vstack([coord_atoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]])
except NameError:
    coord_atoms = np.array([[line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)

So let's wrap it into a function:

def fill_or_declare_matrix(line, coord_atoms):
    try:
        return np.vstack([coord_atoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]])
    except NameError:
        return np.array([[line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)

Now, we can get rid of those nested if/else conditions by doing this:

if only_ca and line.startswith('ATOM') and 'CA' in line[13:15]:
    ...
elif only_ca and line.startswith('ATOM'):
    ...

So far we have this code:

def fill_or_declare_matrix(line, coord_atoms):
    try:
        return np.vstack([coord_atoms, [float(line[30:38]), float(line[38:46]), float(line[46:54])]])
    except NameError:
        return np.array([[line[30:38], line[38:46], line[46:54]]], float)


def read_coordinates_atoms2(file_name, only_ca=True):
    # Input: PDB File; 
    # this function returns a  matrix with coordinates of atoms
    with open(file_name) as infile:
        for line in infile:
            if only_ca and line.startswith('ATOM') and 'CA' in line[13:15]:
                coord_atoms = fill_or_declare_matrix(line, coord_atoms)
            elif only_ca and line.startswith('ATOM'):
                coord_atoms = fill_or_declare_matrix(line, coord_atoms)
        return coord_atoms
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