# Music player in Swift

I made a simple mp3 player that plays, pauses and stops a given song, shows the time elapsed, and has a volume control. I read the documentation and can't figure out the difference between the pause and stop methods, although I have configured them to work as I want (i.e., pause lets you resume from where you left off while stop resets the track).

import UIKit
import AVFoundation

class ViewController: UIViewController {

var player:AVAudioPlayer = AVAudioPlayer()
var musicPlaying = false
var timer:NSTimer!

@IBOutlet weak var currentTime: UILabel!
@IBOutlet weak var sliderValue: UISlider!

let audioPath = NSBundle.mainBundle().pathForResource("bach", ofType: "mp3")!
do {
try player = AVAudioPlayer(contentsOfURL: NSURL(string: audioPath)!)
} catch let error as NSError {
print(error)
}
}

@IBAction func play(sender: AnyObject) {
if musicPlaying {
player.pause()
musicPlaying = false
} else {
player.play()
musicPlaying = true
timer = NSTimer.scheduledTimerWithTimeInterval(1.0, target: self, selector: "updateTime", userInfo: nil, repeats: true)
}
}

@IBAction func stop(sender: AnyObject) {
player.stop()
musicPlaying = false
player.currentTime = 0
}

func updateTime() {
let timePlayed = player.currentTime
let minutes = Int(timePlayed / 60)
let seconds = Int(timePlayed % 60)
currentTime.text = NSString(format:"%02d:%02d", minutes, seconds) as String
}

@IBAction func sliderChanged(sender: AnyObject) {
player.volume = sliderValue.value
}

}

}

• According to the documtation for stop, it "Stops playback and undoes the setup needed for playback". – Spotlight Feb 27 '16 at 22:09
• I saw that but didn't quite understand why that would be useful – thumbtackthief Feb 28 '16 at 2:14
• My understanding is that it completely wipes information from the control center and other places. E.g your song with play/forward/backward to the ff/rw buttons in the control center being grayed out and the song info is removed. – Spotlight Feb 28 '16 at 2:42

class ViewController: UIViewController {


I noticed that your class is called ViewController. There are two things to comment on based on this name.

1. ViewController is basically the prefix that all of your view controllers should have. There should be more meat to the name. What sort of view are you controlling? Is this a BachPlayerViewController (as Bach.mp3 is hardcoded)? Or is this the first iteration of MusicPlayerViewController? Either way, ViewController is not nearly self-documenting enough to be acceptable.

2. The name of the class is also not Everything, and as such, it shouldn't be doing everything. You've dumped a lot of logic into this class that would have to be duplicated in other view controllers that also wanted to do things like update their UI on a tick with a new set of information from the audio player. A common mistake for iOS developers is to put all of their logic for everything inside the one set of classes that you can't make an app without: view controllers. We deserve a layer of abstraction.

I'm not going to critique much of your actually view controller code. There's not much in it, but a lot of what is there (and doesn't directly relate to interacting with the UI) doesn't belong in it. Instead, I'm going to present you with a class that would let any view controller more easily interact with AVAudioPlayer and do things like update their UI on some sort of tick.

I'm going to start with a cleaner way of passing around the time stamp information:

class AudioTimeStamp: NSObject {
enum Format {
case WithoutHours, WithHours
}

private let timeInterval: Int

var seconds: Int { get { return timeInterval % 60 } }
var minutes: Int { get { return (timeInterval / 60) % 60 } }
var hours: Int { get { return timeInterval / 3600 } }

init(seconds: NSTimeInterval) {
timeInterval = Int(seconds)
}

func formattedString(format: Format = .WithHours) -> String {
switch format {
case .WithHours: return String(format: "%02i:%02i:%02i", hours, minutes, seconds)
case .WithoutHours: return String(format: "%02i:%02i", (hours * 60) + minutes, seconds)
}
}

override var description: String {
return formattedString()
}

override var debugDescription: String {
return formattedString()
}
}


Now all of the logic for dealing with the time stamp is abstracted into this struct. We can of course add more cases to the Format enum and handle the different options in different ways.

Next, we need a way to update those that care about getting updates. For this, we'll go with the protocol-delegate pattern. For now, let's stick with something simple, but we'll be re-addressing this in the future:

protocol AudioPlayerDelegate: class {
func audioPlayer(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, didUpdate timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)
}


Note that AudioPlayer is the name of a class we're about to create.

Let's look at creating that AudioPlayer class now. The interface of what we want out of our AudioPlayer looks something like this:

class AudioPlayer {
weak var delegate: AudioPlayerDelegate?

init(contentsOfURL: NSURL) throws {}

func play() {}
func pause() {}
func stop() {}

}

• We want a way to assign our the delegate property so we can control who is updated of particular events happening on the player.
• We want an initializer that takes an NSURL so we can set up an audio player with a file like your code base already does. It is worth noting that AVAudioPlayer has three other initializers, and we'll probably want to add an initializer for all of these, because this class is effectively just a wrapper for that.
• We want a way to begin playback of the audio. This method, however, will do more than just start playback. It will start up a timer to call the aforementioned audioPlayer(_:didUpdate:) method on our delegate.
• We want a way to pause the audio.
• We want a way to stop the audio. Importantly, here, unless AVAudioPlayer's stop method, we will reset the current time to zero and we will not release the preloaded resources for the track.
• We want a way to preload and unload the resources required for the actual audio playback.
• As a note, we probably want to add some computed variables for values volume, whether or not the track is actively playing, current time, etc.

The answer is already growing quite long, and I don't want to implement the whole thing for you, but I'll give you some of the most important aspects...

First, let's update our protocol. We'll make it a little more informative:

@objc protocol AudioPlayerDelegate: class {
optional func audioPlayerShouldBeginPlaying(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp) -> Bool
optional func audioPlayerWillBeginPlaying(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)
optional func audioPlayerDidBeginPlaying(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)

optional func audioPlayerShouldPause(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp) -> Bool
optional func audioPlayerWillPause(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)
optional func audioPlayerDidPause(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)

optional func audioPlayerShouldStop(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp) -> Bool
optional func audioPlayerWillStop(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)
optional func audioPlayerDidStop(audioPlayer: AudioPlayer, atTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)

optional func audioPlayer(player: AudioPlayer, didUpdateAtTimestamp timestamp: AudioTimeStamp)
}


Now, a skeleton of our AudioPlayer class looks something like this:

class AudioPlayer: NSObject, AVAudioPlayerDelegate {
private let player: AVAudioPlayer
private var updateTimer = NSTimer()

weak var delegate: AudioPlayerDelegate?

init(contentsOfURL url: NSURL) throws {
do {
try player = AVAudioPlayer(contentsOfURL: url)
super.init()
player.delegate = self
}
catch let error {
player = AVAudioPlayer()
super.init()
throw error
}
}

func play() {
let timestamp = AudioTimeStamp(seconds: player.currentTime)

guard let shouldPlay = delegate?.audioPlayerShouldBeginPlaying?(self, atTimestamp: timestamp) where !shouldPlay else {
return
}

delegate?.audioPlayerWillBeginPlaying?(self, atTimestamp: timestamp)
player.play()
delegate?.audioPlayerDidBeginPlaying?(self, atTimestamp: timestamp)

updateTimer = NSTimer.scheduledTimerWithTimeInterval(1, target: self, selector: "update", userInfo: nil, repeats: true)
updateTimer.fire()
}

private dynamic func update() {
delegate?.audioPlayer?(self, didUpdateAtTimestamp: AudioTimeStamp(seconds: player.currentTime))
}
}


The pause and stop methods are very similar to the play method. The difference is that where the play method start the timer, the pause/stop methods should invalidate the timer (and you might make a case for firing it just before invalidating it). The pause function should call pause on the player. The stop function should call pause and then set current time to zero.

The preload function should simply call prepareToPlay on the player.

The unload function should call stop on the player.

You should also implement at least this function audioPlayerDidFinishPlaying(player: AVAudioPlayer, successfully flag: Bool) which is part of the AVAudioPlayerDelegate call. I'd probably add something to the AudioPlayerDelegate protocol to notify the delegate when this event happens, but most importantly, we should take this opportunity to invalidate the timer. We don't need to continue updating the delegate about the status of the player. We only need to do this when an event happens (like playing, pausing, stopping, track reached end, etc) or when the time stamp updates.

• Thank you for all of this; I'm afraid much of it was over my head, but what I did understand was very helpful. I'll keep working to try to understand the rest--I really appreciate the very thoughtful and thorough responses! – thumbtackthief Mar 1 '16 at 3:32

Let's talk very generally about AVAudioPlayer.

There are a few relevant methods to discuss here:

Strictly speaking, prepareToPlay is optional, but if we call play without the player being prepared to play, there will potentially be some latency between calling play and audio actually beginning to play. If the player wasn't already prepared, the first thing that play will do is prepare it.

From the documentation on prepareToPlay:

Calling this method preloads buffers and acquires the audio hardware needed for playback, which minimizes the lag between calling the play method and the start of sound output.

And perhaps, the important part to read here is that calling stop will undo the set up. This is repeated in the documentation on stop:

Calling this method, or allowing a sound to finish playing, undoes the setup performed upon calling the play or prepareToPlay methods.

So, in your specific case, where we have a view controller that does nothing but play "bach.mp3", we should consider never actually calling stop except perhaps in viewWillDisappear. Calling stop will simply release resources that have to be re-obtained before the track can be played again. And if we continue reading the documentation for stop, we can see that the behavior of not resetting the currentTime to zero is well documented and to be expected:

The stop method does not reset the value of the currentTime property to 0. In other words, if you call stop during playback and then call play, playback resumes at the point where it left off.

So basically, if you're not actually done with that player, stop does the same as pause, but just requires a lot more work.

Realistically, if we want to present to the user behavior which stops the current audio from playing, and will resume the audio from the beginning of the track when play is pressed again (and we have no expectation of starting another track without some other action happening to trigger that), then we should be using pause and then resetting the currentTime to 0.

The only difference between our stop and pause buttons in this specific case should be that stop resets the current time to zero, but both buttons simply pause the player.