Tokenize s-expressions in Rust

I'm writing an s-expression tokenizer in Rust.

I have the following code written, but it is not idiomatic Rust - it is quite ugly. TokenizerI is simply an interface with a body that is really of no import here other than to note that _s is unused (hence the underscore).

extern crate regex;

use regex::Regex;
use std::cmp;

use tokenize::api::TokenizerI;

pub struct SExprTokenizer {
strict: bool,
open_paren: &'static str,
close_paren: &'static str,
paren_regexp: regex::Regex
}

impl TokenizerI for SExprTokenizer {

fn tokenize<'a>(&'a self, _s: &'a str) -> Result<Vec<&str>, String> {
let mut result = Vec::new();
let mut pos = 0;
let mut depth = 0;

for cap in self.paren_regexp.captures_iter(_s) {
let paren = cap.at(0).unwrap();

let (start, end) = cap.pos(0).unwrap();

if depth == 0 {
for token in _s[pos..start].split(|c: char| c.is_whitespace())
.filter(|s| !s.is_empty()) {
result.push(token);
}
pos = start;
}
if paren == self.open_paren {
depth = depth + 1;
}
if paren == self.close_paren {
if self.strict && depth == 0 {
return Err(String::from(format!("Unmatched open token at {}", pos)));
}
depth = cmp::max(0, depth-1);
if depth == 0 {
result.push(&_s[pos..end]);
pos = end;
}
}
}
Ok(result)
}
}

It is based on the following Python:

import re

from nltk.tokenize.api import TokenizerI

class SExprTokenizer(TokenizerI):
"""
A tokenizer that divides strings into s-expressions.
An s-expresion can be either:

- a parenthesized expression, including any nested parenthesized
expressions, or
- a sequence of non-whitespace non-parenthesis characters.

For example, the string (a (b c)) d e (f) consists of four
s-expressions: (a (b c)), d, e, and (f).

By default, the characters ( and ) are treated as open and
close parentheses, but alternative strings may be specified.

:param parens: A two-element sequence specifying the open and close parentheses
that should be used to find sexprs.  This will typically be either a
two-character string, or a list of two strings.
:type parens: str or list
:param strict: If true, then raise an exception when tokenizing an ill-formed sexpr.
"""

def __init__(self, parens='()', strict=True):
if len(parens) != 2:
raise ValueError('parens must contain exactly two strings')
self._strict = strict
self._open_paren = parens[0]
self._close_paren = parens[1]
self._paren_regexp = re.compile('%s|%s' % (re.escape(parens[0]),
re.escape(parens[1])))

def tokenize(self, text):
"""
Return a list of s-expressions extracted from *text*.
For example:

>>> SExprTokenizer().tokenize('(a b (c d)) e f (g)')
['(a b (c d))', 'e', 'f', '(g)']

All parentheses are assumed to mark s-expressions.
(No special processing is done to exclude parentheses that occur
inside strings, or following backslash characters.)

If the given expression contains non-matching parentheses,
then the behavior of the tokenizer depends on the strict
parameter to the constructor.  If strict is True, then
raise a ValueError.  If strict is False, then any
unmatched close parentheses will be listed as their own
s-expression; and the last partial s-expression with unmatched open
parentheses will be listed as its own s-expression:

>>> SExprTokenizer(strict=False).tokenize('c) d) e (f (g')
['c', ')', 'd', ')', 'e', '(f (g']

:param text: the string to be tokenized
:type text: str or iter(str)
:rtype: iter(str)
"""
result = []
pos = 0
depth = 0
for m in self._paren_regexp.finditer(text):
paren = m.group()
if depth == 0:
result += text[pos:m.start()].split()
pos = m.start()
if paren == self._open_paren:
depth += 1
if paren == self._close_paren:
if self._strict and depth == 0:
raise ValueError('Un-matched close paren at char %d'
% m.start())
depth = max(0, depth-1)
if depth == 0:
result.append(text[pos:m.end()])
pos = m.end()
if self._strict and depth > 0:
raise ValueError('Un-matched open paren at char %d' % pos)
if pos < len(text):
result.append(text[pos:])
return result

The Python explains use and provides a few tests. I have the following written, which pass:

#[cfg(test)]
mod test_sexpr {
use regex::Regex;

use tokenize::api::TokenizerI;
use super::SExprTokenizer;

#[test]
fn passing_strict_parens_test() {
let strict =  true;
let open_paren = "(";
let close_paren = ")";
let paren_regexp = Regex::new(
&format!("\\{}|\\{}", open_paren, close_paren)
).unwrap();

let tokenizer = SExprTokenizer {
strict: strict,
open_paren: open_paren,
close_paren: close_paren,
paren_regexp: paren_regexp
};

let text = "(a b (c d)) e f (g)";
let expected = vec!["(a b (c d))", "e", "f", "(g)"];
let result = tokenizer.tokenize(text).unwrap();
assert_eq!(expected, result);
}

#[test]
fn passing_strict_braces_test() {
let strict =  true;
let open_paren = "{";
let close_paren = "}";
let paren_regexp = Regex::new(
&format!("\\{}|\\{}", open_paren, close_paren)
).unwrap();

let tokenizer = SExprTokenizer {
strict: strict,
open_paren: open_paren,
close_paren: close_paren,
paren_regexp: paren_regexp
};

let text = "{a b {c d}} e f {g}";
let expected = vec!["{a b {c d}}", "e", "f", "{g}"];
let result = tokenizer.tokenize(text).unwrap();
assert_eq!(expected, result);
}

#[test]
#[should_panic(expected = "Unmatched open token at 20")]
fn failing_strict_braces_test() {
let strict =  true;
let open_paren = "{";
let close_paren = "}";
let paren_regexp = Regex::new(
&format!("\\{}|\\{}", open_paren, close_paren)
).unwrap();

let tokenizer = SExprTokenizer {
strict: strict,
open_paren: open_paren,
close_paren: close_paren,
paren_regexp: paren_regexp
};

let text = "{a b {c d}} e f {g} }";
let _result = tokenizer.tokenize(text).unwrap();
// Tests expectedly fails - no need to assert.
}
}

1. The biggest thing I can say is listen to your tests. The very first thing I noticed as I was skimming is how repetitive they were. Even worse, the repeated parts drowned out the interesting aspects of the tests.

Remember that your tests are your first chance to see how a potential end-user might use your code. Use them as an opportunity to reflect on your API and how ergonomic it is.

Here, I've chosen to introduce the builder pattern. This allows you to reduce the boilerplate duplication and consolidate more complicated logic (like the construction of the regex), as well as provide a sane set of defaults.

As a side-benefit, I can see that you haven't tested with non-strict tokenization because I didn't need to add that to the builder.

2. Avoid abbreviations in globally-visible items such as types. These items are read way more then they will be written. You can use your editors autocomplete functionality to avoid RSI if that's a concern for you.

3. I'd strongly encourage you to avoid Hungarian notation. Hungarian notation was useful in languages like C where the type system was a bit looser, although many people misused it to simply repeat the type of the variable. It should have been used like distance_meters, but people misused it as distance_int. It's especially bad if you use initials that don't even correspond! Rust doesn't have interfaces, it has traits. While the two things help solve similar problems, things have different names for a reason.

4. I don't know why you are using &'a self. That's a very unusual pattern as it ties the lifetime of the result to the lifetime of the tokenizer. Said another way, this code doesn't work:

let text = "{a b {c d}} e f {g} }";

let result = {
let tokenizer = make_tokenizer();
tokenizer.tokenize(text)
};

5. The s argument is used in your tokenizer, so it should not have an underscore. I'm unclear as to why you bring up the trait definition in your original post, but it seems to be a non sequitur. Maybe you are unaware that the argument names don't have to match between the trait definition and the implementation(s)?

trait Foo {
fn foo(&self, a: u8);
}

impl Foo for bool {
fn foo(&self, _: u8) { }
}

impl Foo for String {
fn foo(&self, value: u8) { println!("{}", value) }
}

6. format! already returns a String — there's no need to use String::from.

7. I avoid having long values in a for-loop expression. Break it out into a separate line and give it a name.

8. You can sometimes pass a function directly to items that take a closure. It's a little tricky when a lifetime is involved, but is_whitespace works just fine.

9. Instead of iterating over the iterator and pushing, just use extend.

10. Use the += operator and friends instead of a = a + b.

11. Use else if to show that you expect that the two if statements can never be both true. As a small benefit, you might get a tiny performance benefit.

12. There's no need to use max when subtracting the depth as is it never possible to subtract more than one level (at least your tests don't fail with this change). If you did need it for some reason, I'd look into saturating_sub.

13. I'd avoid unwraps in your tests, especially for things that you expect to fail. Instead, I'd just assert that your value is wrapped in an Ok or Err, as appropriate. I believe this to give better test errors.

14. Since the test module is nested within your production code, which presumably would already be namespaced appropriated, there's no need to further namespace it by adding _sexpr.

extern crate regex;

use regex::Regex;

trait Tokenizer {
fn tokenize<'a>(&self, s: &'a str) -> Result<Vec<&'a str>, String>;
}

struct SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
strict: bool,
open_paren: &'static str,
close_paren: &'static str,
}

impl SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
fn new() -> SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
strict: true,
open_paren: "(",
close_paren: ")",
}
}

fn open_close(self, open: &'static str, close: &'static str) -> SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
SExpressionTokenizerBuilder {
open_paren: open,
close_paren: close,
..self
}
}

fn build(self) -> SExpressionTokenizer {
let paren_regexp = Regex::new(
&format!("\\{}|\\{}", self.open_paren, self.close_paren)
).unwrap();

SExpressionTokenizer {
strict: self.strict,
open_paren: self.open_paren,
close_paren: self.close_paren,
paren_regexp: paren_regexp,
}
}
}

struct SExpressionTokenizer {
strict: bool,
open_paren: &'static str,
close_paren: &'static str,
paren_regexp: regex::Regex
}

impl Tokenizer for SExpressionTokenizer {
fn tokenize<'a>(&self, s: &'a str) -> Result<Vec<&'a str>, String> {
let mut result = Vec::new();
let mut pos = 0;
let mut depth = 0;

for cap in self.paren_regexp.captures_iter(s) {
let paren = cap.at(0).unwrap();

let (start, end) = cap.pos(0).unwrap();

if depth == 0 {
let tokens =
s[pos..start]
.split(char::is_whitespace)
.filter(|s| !s.is_empty());

result.extend(tokens);

pos = start;
}

if paren == self.open_paren {
depth += 1;
} else if paren == self.close_paren {
if self.strict && depth == 0 {
return Err(format!("Unmatched open token at {}", pos));
}
depth -= 1;
if depth == 0 {
result.push(&s[pos..end]);
pos = end;
}
}
}
Ok(result)
}
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod test {
use super::{Tokenizer, SExpressionTokenizerBuilder};

#[test]
fn passing_strict_parens_test() {
let tokenizer = SExpressionTokenizerBuilder::new().build();

let text = "(a b (c d)) e f (g)";
let expected = vec!["(a b (c d))", "e", "f", "(g)"];
let result = tokenizer.tokenize(text);
assert_eq!(Ok(expected), result);
}

#[test]
fn passing_strict_braces_test() {
let tokenizer = SExpressionTokenizerBuilder::new().open_close("{", "}").build();

let text = "{a b {c d}} e f {g}";
let expected = vec!["{a b {c d}}", "e", "f", "{g}"];
let result = tokenizer.tokenize(text);
assert_eq!(Ok(expected), result);
}

#[test]
fn failing_strict_braces_test() {
let tokenizer = SExpressionTokenizerBuilder::new().open_close("{", "}").build();

let text = "{a b {c d}} e f {g} }";
let result = tokenizer.tokenize(text);
assert_eq!(Err("Unmatched open token at 20".to_string()), result)
}
}
• These are great suggestions. Just trying to pick your brain - do you think it's more important to maintain API for ports, or should the goal be to make it idiomatic of the porting language? – erip Dec 6 '15 at 15:45
• @erip that's a tough question, and you may want to ask at Programmers for a wider set of answers. If I were simply reimplementing code in a lower level language for performance reasons, I would try to maintain the API for compatibility. If I were reimplementing the code for humans to use, I would try to be idiomatic as well as investigating new patterns that better showcase the target language. You also need to think about your audience - will you have a lot of users familiar with the old API? If so, having a "Rosetta Stone" may be invaluable! – Shepmaster Dec 6 '15 at 15:56
• NLTK is one of the more widely used NLP toolkits. I don't think changes to the API are going to be dramatic and I'd imagine anyone switching from Python to Rust could appreciate the differences in language necessitating an API change. I was just curious :) – erip Dec 6 '15 at 16:03
• @erip if you can keep the same terms, then that can also help with discoverability of where the remapped API is. For example, the Python code doesn't have a "builder", but the default arguments provide similar functionality. Although the API is different, you can keep the same names (like "strict") and people will be able to translate. Where it gets really sticky is when you get into hardcore optimization. In Rust, iterators are strongly preferred for speed and expressiveness and Python has generators; it's nice that those two concepts map well to each other. – Shepmaster Dec 6 '15 at 16:07
• That's one of our TODOs - we want to write iterators to correspond to generators, but they seem a little cumbersome to write for each struct. We wanted to benchmark iterators vs. returning whole arrays to see if it's worth implementing sooner or later. – erip Dec 6 '15 at 17:24