This is a reservations software for hotel and restaurant management, allowing you to add and delete rooms, show available rooms, keep track of reservations etc. I am looking to trim my code a bit and improve upon the style since it's a little cluttered right now. I believe the use of classes will help rather than making functions upon functions and 'if else' statements. The complete copy of the code is as follows.

from collections import namedtuple
import datetime

Reservation = namedtuple('Reservation','room arr_date dept_date guest_name confirmation_num')

#----------global variables / lists----------#

confirmation_counter = 0
bedroom_list = []
reservation_list = []

#main function
def Anteater_BandB (file_name:str)-> None:
    '''main function. reads a file named file_name'''
    infile = open(file_name, 'r')
    data = infile.readlines()
    for line in data:
        line = line.strip()

def line_reader(l: str) -> None:
    '''takes in one line of input and calls appropriate functions'''
    command = l[:2].upper()
    rest_of_input = l[2:].strip()
    if command == '**':
    elif command == 'AB':
    elif command == 'BL':
    elif command == 'PL':
    elif command == 'BD':
    elif command == 'NR':
    elif command == 'RL':
    elif command == 'RD':
    elif command == 'RB':
    elif command == 'RC':
    elif command == 'LA':
    elif command == 'LD':
    elif command =='LF': 
    elif command == 'LO': 

def dashes():
    return '------------------------------------'


def add_bedroom(room: str)-> None:
    '''takes in a room number as a string and puts it into bedroom_list'''
    global bedroom_list
    if room in bedroom_list:
        print('The bedroom is already in the list.')


def display_bedroom_list():
    '''prints items in bedroom_list'''
    global bedroom_list
    print('Number of bedrooms in service:\t', len(bedroom_list))
    for bed in bedroom_list:


def print_line(r: str):


def delete_bedroom(room:str)-> None:
    '''deletes specified room from the list. print error message if
    room isn't on the list'''
    global bedroom_list
    if room in bedroom_list:
        print('Sorry, can\'t delete room '+room+'; it is not in service now')

def compare_date(date1:str,date2:str)->bool:
    '''compares two dates. returns true if date 2 is after date 1'''
    date1 = date1.split('/')
    date_1 = datetime.date(int(date1[2]),int(date1[0]),int(date1[1]))
    date2 = date2.split('/')
    date_2 = datetime.date(int(date2[2]),int(date2[0]),int(date2[1]))
    if date_2>date_1:
        return True
        return False

def date(date:str)->int:
    date = date.split('/')
    result = datetime.date(int(date[2]),int(date[0]),int(date[1]))
    return result

def conf_num(r: Reservation) -> int:
    return r.confirmation_num


def new_reservation(rest_input: str)->None:
    '''creates a new reservation namedtuple and adds it to reservation_list'''
    global reservation_list
    global bedroom_list
    global confirmation_counter
    #chop up input to get variables
    parts = rest_input.split()
    room_request = parts[0]
    arrival = parts[1]
    departure = parts[2]
    name = ''
    for item in parts[3:]:
        name+=' '
    if (room_request in bedroom_list) and (allow_reservation(arrival, departure)) and room_not_taken(room_request) :
        reservation = Reservation(room_request, arrival, departure, name, confirmation_counter)
        print('Reserving room '+room_request+' for '+name+' -- Confirmation # ' + str(confirmation_counter))
        print('(arriving ' + arrival + ', departing ' + departure + ' )')
    elif allow_reservation(arrival, departure) == False:
        print("Sorry, can't reserve room ",room_request,'(',arrival,' to ',departure,"); \n can't leave before you arrive.")
    elif room_not_taken(room_request)==False:
        print("Sorry, can't reserve room ",room_request,'(',arrival,' to ',departure,"); \n it is already booked (conf # ",str(confirmation_counter)) 
        print("Sorry, can't reserve room", room_request,'; room not in service')


def display_reservation_list():
    global reservation_list
    print('Number of reservations:\t' + str(len(reservation_list)))
    print('{:>3}{:>4}{:>11}{:>11}{}{}'.format('No.','Rm.','Arrive','Depart',' ','Guest'))
    for r in reservation_list:
            str(r.confirmation_num),r.room,r.arr_date,r.dept_date,' ',r.guest_name))

def delete_reservation(num: str):
    '''takes in a confirmation number and deletes the reservation with that confirmation number'''
    global reservation_list
    #reservation_list.sort(key = conf_num, reverse=False)
    confirmation_list = []
    for r in reservation_list:
    if (int(num) in confirmation_list):
        reservation_index = confirmation_list.index(int(num)) #find where the reservation is in the list
        reservation_list.remove(reservation_list[reservation_index]) #delete the reservation with that index
        print("Sorry, can't cancel reservation; no confirmation number " + num)

#First: reject if arrival of guest A is later than departure date of guest A

def allow_reservation(arr: str, dept: str)-> bool:
    '''takes in two dates as strings, converts them to dates to compare them,
    and determines whether, based on the arr and dept date, the reservation is valid
    if date(arr)>=date(dept):
        #print('can\'t leave before you arrive')
        return False
    return True

#Second: check conflicts with existing reservations

def room_not_taken(room_req: str) -> bool:
    '''return true if room is taken'''

    #based on whether bedroom is free
    global reservation_list
    reserved_rooms = []
    for r in reservation_list:
        reserved_rooms.append(r.room) #list of strings of taken rooms
    if (room_req not in reserved_rooms):
        return True
    return False

def reservations_conflict(r1:Reservation, r2:Reservation)-> bool:
    '''takes two reservations and compares them. return true if they conflict'''
    if (date(r1.arr_date)>=date(r2.arr_date) and date(r1.arr_date)<date(r2.dept_date)) or (date(r1.dept_date)>=date(r2.arr_date) and date(r1.dept_date)<date(r2.dept_date)):
            print('Sorry, can\'t reserve room '+room_request+'\t('+arrival+' to '+departure+');')
            print('it\'s already been booked')
            return True
    return False

#Finally, if user deletes bedroom, all reservations for that room are cancelled
def cancel_room_reservations(room:str):
    for r in reservation_list:
        if r.room == room:
            print('Deleting room',room,'forces cancellation of this reservation:')
            print('\t',r.guest_name,'arriving',r.arr_date,'and departing',r.dept_date,'(Conf. #',r.confirmation_num,')')

def reservations_by_bedroom(line:str):
    global reservation_list
    bedroom_reserve_list= []
    bedroom_num = line
    for r in reservation_list:
        if r.room == bedroom_num:
    print("Reservations for room " + line +':')
    for re in bedroom_reserve_list:
        print(re.arr_date,' to ',re.dept_date, re.guest_name)
def reservations_by_guest(line:str):
    guest_reserve_list = []
    guest_name = line
    print('Reservation for',guest_name)
    for r in reservation_list:
        if r.guest_name == guest_name:
            print(r.arr_date + ' to ' + r.dept_date + ': room ' + r.room)

def display_guest(rl:list) -> None:
    '''takes in a reservation list and prints out guest name as well as room number
    for r in rl:
        print(r.guest_name+ '(room '+ r.room + ')')

def reserved_rooms(rl: list) -> list:
    '''takes in a list of reservations and returns a list of reserved rooms''' 
    reserved = []
    for r in rl:
    return reserved

def list_arrivals(line:str):
    guest_arrival_list = []
    guest_arrival = date(line)
    for r in reservation_list:
        if guest_arrival == date(r.arr_date):
    print('Guests arriving on '+ line+ ':')

def list_departures(line:str):
    guest_departure_list = []
    guest_departure = date(line)
    for r in reservation_list:
        if guest_departure == date(r.dept_date):
    print('Guests departing on '+ line+ ':')

def list_free_beds(line:str):
    global bedroom_list
    bedroom_requests = []
    two_dates = line.split()
    arr_date = two_dates[0]
    dept_date = two_dates[1]
    print('Bedrooms free between ' + arr_date + ' to ' + dept_date + ':')
    for r in reservation_list:
        if (date(dept_date)<=date(r.arr_date)) or (date(arr_date)>=date(r.dept_date)):
    for b in bedroom_list:
        if str(b) not in reserved_rooms(reservation_list):
    bedroom_requests = list(set(bedroom_requests))
    for beds in bedroom_requests:

def list_occupied(line:str):
    global bedroom_list
    bedroom_requests = []
    two_dates = line[2:].split()
    arr_date = two_dates[0]
    dept_date = two_dates[1]
    print('Bedrooms occupied between ' + arr_date + ' to ' + dept_date + ':')
    for r in reservation_list:
        if not (date(dept_date)<=date(r.arr_date)) or (date(arr_date)>=date(r.dept_date)):
    bedroom_requests = list(set(bedroom_requests))
    for beds in bedroom_requests:
  • \$\begingroup\$ I can't do a full answer right now, but you have a chain of elifs that I'd recommend breaking into functions and putting in a dictionary to call from. I have a Stack Overflow answer about doing this here \$\endgroup\$ Aug 21, 2015 at 18:51
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Please edit the code into the question. Questions that don't embed the code to be reviewed, are off-topic. If it's too long (> ~60K characters), consider only including the most relevant parts; you may keep the "link to the full source" for reference, but the code to be reviewed must be in the post. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 21, 2015 at 19:15
  • \$\begingroup\$ I needed an overall code review. I have put the code in the questions and updated it. Thnaks \$\endgroup\$ Aug 22, 2015 at 22:04

1 Answer 1


Data structures

The most important thing in any program is the data. You always want to get good datastructures first, by understanding the data you fully understand the problem. In this case I'm concerned that you have a situation where too much of your underlying data is based on strings. You end up manipulating strings for all manner of things that would be more cleanly represented by other datastructures.

Rooms for example are probably better stored as some data structure that specifically represents a room. Same goes for guests.


There's a lot of code here that could be logically grouped together.

For example there's a bunch of functions that have the following structure:

def some_function(line:str):
    global bedroom_list
    #more code

Usually this is a fairly strong indication that you should be making a class that contains bedroom_list along with all those function as methods. The main reason for this is that global mutable state introduces very hard to fix bugs and makes testing very difficult. How would you unit test this code now? By refactoring in this way you have a change to make your code testable which is a huge boost to the correctness and reliability of your code. This pays large dividends later in the time that is saved from needing to debug and also allows you to have much more confidence in the quality of your code when you make changes in the future. Regressions are much easier to find when your code has good test coverage.

This is completely setting aside concurrency issues, if you do end up adding concurrency later these global mutable state will cause you much much pain and suffering.

Separation of logic and user interface

The main guiding principle with these things is that changing the UI should not ever impact your backend data processing function. Currently you have functions that both process data AND interact with the user. From a design perspective it is much cleaner if you have the data processing as a separate step from the user input/output. This is because you don't want a situation where making a change to the UI can create problem with your data processing, by completely separating that functionality it makes it a lot easier to avoid such issues. This has the additional benefit of making it much easier to say change to a GUI in the future or some other interface.


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