# printf-style string formatter

As part of a larger project I'm working on, I've made a function that aims to replicate, as best as I can, the placeholder part of the console.log() function usable in most browsers.

It replaces %s, %d , %i , %f and ,%o. It works by having 'unlimited' parameters (the replacements), looping through the parameters, checking for any placeholders and replacing them by index with the parameter given. The switch is for checking whether the passed parameter (replacement) is the correct type - if not, it will add NaN, just like the real console would.

My main questions are:

• Are there any better ways to do any part of this?
• Can it be cleaned up anymore?
function replacePlaceholders(string) {
var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments).splice(1); //get all the extra arguments (exclude the original string)
var counter = 0; //set a counter

for (var i = 0; i < args.length; i++) { //loop through the extra arguments (should match the number of placeholders in the string)
var match = /%s|%d|%i|%f|%o/.exec(string); //regex
if (match) { //if match found
var index = match.index; //store the index
switch (match[0]) { //check whether the placeholder has a real value with the correct type
case '%s': //for strings
string = (typeof args[counter] == 'string') ? string.substr(0, index) + args[counter] + string.substr(index + 2) : string.substr(0, index) + NaN + string.substr(index + 2);
break;
case '%d': //for numbers....
case '%i':
case '%f':
string = (typeof args[counter] == 'number') ? string.substr(0, index) + args[counter] + string.substr(index + 2) : string.substr(0, index) + NaN + string.substr(index + 2);
break;
case '%o': //for objects
string = (typeof args[counter] == 'object') ? string.substr(0, index) + args[counter] + string.substr(index + 2) : string.substr(0, index) + NaN + string.substr(index + 2);
break;
}
}
counter++;
}
return string;
}

console.log(replacePlaceholders("string %s %d %i %f %o", 'string', 1, 4, 5.5, {one: 1})); //test case


You can test this here - check the console for the returned string.

• It seems to me that this function is a string format-er. After all, the "f" in printf stands for "format". – SirPython Aug 19 '15 at 20:11
• @SirPython 'string formatter' is the phrase I was looking for! Yes that's what the function is... – ᔕᖺᘎᕊ Aug 19 '15 at 20:12

Before I start: Thank you so much for making this code easily readable! Thank you from the bottom of my heart!

Second thing that I have noticed was the name. It's wrong! If it is a sptrinf-like function, give it the right name. sprintf! Done! No overly complicated boring names.

You have an argument called string. Please, don't do that. In fact, remove it's name! You know it is the first element.

You can do this:

var text = arguments[0];
for (var i = 1; i < arguments.length; i++) {


Done! But it won't be needed and you will see why.

You still didn't learn: Store the length in a local variable. Always! Like this:

for (var i = 1, length = args.length; i < length; i++) {


Accessing a property in an object (in this case, an array) is slower than accessing a loval variable. By setting the local variable with that slow property, we increase performance.

It is really a great idea to have literal regular expressions, but the whole code is quite... shady... Specially the useless validations!

You expect a string to be a real string so you can do something... But why? What about a number? What about an array? What around something else? Why can't I convert anything into a string? Every single object has the .toString() method.

And why that NaN there? What is it for? Is that to say it is NaN?

The %o is doing something somewhat somewhere that I don't get. By the C++ documentation and the PHP documentation specify that this is the octal representation.

And now, the questions:

• Why do you check if an argument is a string before converting it to string?
• Why do you check if an argument is og any type before converting?
• why don't you do any kind of validation?
• Why are you using exec?

I would never do it on this way. It's so frail and picky. It's so hard to change anything without breaking it. You have to deal with things you should, like breaking a string in 3 parts and replacing the middle part with something. That's a bad way to do a .replace().

I would do like this:

function sprintf(){
var toBase = function(value, base){
//converts to the required bases
return (parseInt(value, 10) || 0).toString(base);
};
var map = {
s: function(value){
return value.toString();
},
d: function(value){
},
i: function(value){
return this.d(value);
},
b: function(value){
//binary conversion
},
o: function(value){
//octal conversion
},
x: function(value){
},
X: function(value){
},
e: function(value){
//scientific notation
return (parseFloat(value, 10) || 0).toExponential();
},
E: function(value){
return this.e(value, 10).toUpperCase();
},
f: function(value){
//floating point
return (parseFloat(value, 10) || '0.0').toString();
}
};

//crude way to extract the keys
var keys = '';
for(var k in map)
{
keys += k;
}
var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments).slice();

return args.shift().toString().replace(new RegExp('%([' + keys + '])','g'),function(_, type){
if(!args.length)
{
throw new Error('Too few elements');//appropriate type here?
}

return map[type](args.shift());

});
}


Come on! It's so easy to understand! You can change it's functionality easily!

If you want, you can remove that loop to fetch the keys and use this literal regular expression: /%([diobsxXeEf])/g. Same thing, but faster and less flexible.

And this is a "good enough" clone of the sprintf function. It doesn't support padding, float-number size specifitation and others. But, it works for the bare minimum.

Outside the scope of this review, thanks to you, I finally have a function to write my questions! Also, you may want to look at http://phpjs.org/functions/sprintf/ if you want a perfect clone of the sprintf function.

To reflect closely the desired implementation, one can change the map variable. I went a bit further and changed all unnecessary things. To be consistent with the MDN documentation and the Chrome console API documentation, you can do this:

function sprintf(){
var map = {
s: function(value){
return value.toString();
},
d: function(value){
return (parseInt(value, 10) || 0).toString();
},
i: function(value){
return this.d(value);
}
f: function(value){
return (parseFloat(value, 10) || '0.0').toString();
}
};

var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments).slice();

return args.shift().toString().replace(/%([difs])/g,function(_, type){
if(!args.length)
{
throw new Error('Too few elements');
}

return map[type](args.shift());

});
}


The %o, %O and %c specifiers are implemented internally and isn't possible to implement using this method. %c and %Cwork on elements, by creating a list in the console or a link to the element to show in the Element Inspector. The %c uses CSS styles to style the output in the console itself.

• You've made some good points about the code, but there are quite a few where you don't explain why. For example, why should the length be stored in a variable in the loop? Why is the code shady? Please add some more of an explanation to your points where you do not have any explanation; while some may understand why, others may not. – SirPython Aug 19 '15 at 22:38
• (Continue from above). Why would you "never" do it on this way? – SirPython Aug 20 '15 at 0:12
• @SirPython What do you think now? – Ismael Miguel Aug 20 '15 at 0:31
• sprintf is much more advanced than console.log(); I guess there's no problem in replicating sprintf, but my target was to replicate the function of console.log... I don't do any conversions, because console.log() doesn't - if you go to your browser's console and type console.log("test %f", ['test']), you get test NaN - the browser doesn't convert it for you... I use exec because it returns the index (I forgot to link to stackoverflow.com/a/2295681/3541881 :/)... %o in the console refers to an object... – ᔕᖺᘎᕊ Aug 20 '15 at 9:23
• @ᔕᖺᘎᕊ It is really easy. You just have to do window.addEventListener('error', function(e){ [code] });. And thank you a lot for accepting the answer. – Ismael Miguel Aug 20 '15 at 10:04