# This Python script gets the job done, but what about it is not 'Pythonic'?

I get a lot done with Python scripts but always feel like I'm working with a messy desk when I'm using it. I assume this is because I am not coding in Python correctly. Coming from a C# and Ruby background, I've used Python mainly as a utility language writing together things that I need quickly - never really trying to refine my work - until now.

I want criticism as to what I'm doing that's making my Python code feel sloppy - I feel I will advance more quickly if I have such feedback, and, since I don't have a Python mentor, here I am.

The below script scrapes new product data from an online store. I typically run this script from my console simply by typing python my_scraper_script.py and it will scrape the data and upload it to my rails site that I have running locally (this is a hobby project of mine).

Some initial concerns:

• Does it make sense to declare some of the methods here in this script and some of the methods in another script (scraper_tools) when some of those methods are shared by similar scripts?
• My websiteProduct class does all of the work in the initializer part of the class, this feels dirty to me.
• I have a bunch of variables declared in what feels like an arbitrary position within the file. Is this acceptable?
• The part where this script actually gets started doing things is just hanging out in the open somewhere arbitrarily toward the end of the actual file, is this normal?

I'm sure there's much more awry - please fix me.

import json
import re
import urllib2
from scraper_tools import soupify, getHtml, buildJsonPostRequest

__author__ = 'ecnalyr'

"""Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page"""
try:
fullSrc = div.find('img')['src']
return fullSrc.replace("//", "http://") # removes the unnecessary // from the beginning of the string
except AttributeError:
return "There is no Image Link"

def getSkuFromDiv(div):
"""Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page"""
try:
baseUrl = div.find('a')['href']
baseSku = re.search('\productId=(\d+_\d+)', baseUrl).group(0)
return baseSku.replace("productId=", "")
except AttributeError:
return "There is no Sku"

def encodeBrandNameToUTF8(brandAndName):
return str(brandAndName.encode("utf-8"))

def getBrandAndNameFromDiv(div):
"""Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page"""
try:
brandAndName = div.find('span', {'class': 'name'}).string
return str(brandAndName)
except UnicodeEncodeError:
return encodeBrandNameToUTF8(brandAndName)
#        return "unicode encode error"
except AttributeError:
return "There is no brand and / or name"

def getPriceFromDiv(div):
"""Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page"""
try:
price = div.find('span', {'class': 'price'}).string
return price.replace("$", "") # have to remove the dollar sign from the price except AttributeError: return "There is no price" def buildLinkFromSKU(sku): """Expects a SKU representing a product at {website}""" return productBaseUrl + sku class websiteProduct: """A product from {website's} created using a newItemDiv in a BeautifulSoup format""" def __init__(self, productDiv): self.price = str(getPriceFromDiv(productDiv)) self.brandAndName = str(getBrandAndNameFromDiv(productDiv)) self.sku = str(getSkuFromDiv(productDiv)) self.imageLink = str(getImageLinkFromDiv(productDiv)) self.link = str(buildLinkFromSKU(self.sku)) self.json = json.dumps({'store':"Website Name", 'name':self.brandAndName, 'price':self.price, 'sku':self.sku, 'link':self.link, 'imageLink':self.imageLink}) def getPrice(self): return self.price def getBrandAndName(self): return self.brandAndName def getLink(self): return self.link def getImageLink(self): return self.imageLink def getSku(self): return self.sku def getJson(self): return self.json uploadProductsUrl = "http://MySite.com/products.json" websiteNewItemLink = "http://www.website.com/newItems" newItemSoup = soupify(getHtml(websiteNewItemLink)) newItems = newItemSoup.find_all('div', {'class': 'productNew'}) productBaseUrl = "http://www.website.com/product?productId=" productList = [] for item in newItems: product = websiteProduct(item) productList.append(product) for item in productList[0:]: jsonData = item.getJson() request = buildJsonPostRequest(uploadProductsUrl) urllib2.urlopen(request, jsonData)  - ## 1 Answer import json import re import urllib2 from scraper_tools import soupify, getHtml, buildJsonPostRequest __author__ = 'ecnalyr' def getImageLinkFromDiv(div):  The python style guide recommends lowercase_with_underscores for function names  """Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page""" try: fullSrc = div.find('img')['src']  Python convention is for local variables to be lowercase_with_underscores  return fullSrc.replace("//", "http://") # removes the unnecessary // from the beginning of the string  This will also make replacements throughout the entire string, not just the beginning. It's also not really removing it from the beginning. It also seems like a more generic thing and perhaps should be in a seperate normalize_url function.  except AttributeError:  It's rarely a good idea to catch an AttributeError, python will produce that errors for simple typos in your code so catching it here is likely to mask real bugs. I'm not sure which attribute access you are catching, but I'm guess its that fullSrc can be None? In that case you should really check if fullSrc is None:  return "There is no Image Link"  That's a terrible way to report an error. Either you should return None or an empty string or raise an exception. But returning a string with an error message is bad because the rest of the program won't treat it as special. def getSkuFromDiv(div): """Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page""" try: baseUrl = div.find('a')['href'] baseSku = re.search('\productId=(\d+_\d+)', baseUrl).group(0)  You should use .group(1) as that will return the part in the parens. Then you don't need to replace trick.  return baseSku.replace("productId=", "") except AttributeError: return "There is no Sku" def encodeBrandNameToUTF8(brandAndName): return str(brandAndName.encode("utf-8"))  .encode() already returns a string, you don't need to stringify it again. The function also implies its specific to brand names, but its not. def getBrandAndNameFromDiv(div): """Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page""" try: brandAndName = div.find('span', {'class': 'name'}).string return str(brandAndName) except UnicodeEncodeError: return encodeBrandNameToUTF8(brandAndName)  Just return encodeBrandNameToUTF8(brandAndName) the first time. You don't gain anything by trying and failing and trying again.  # return "unicode encode error" except AttributeError: return "There is no brand and / or name" def getPriceFromDiv(div): """Expects a BeautifulSoup div from {website's} new product page""" try: price = div.find('span', {'class': 'price'}).string  This line is very similiar to the line in the previous function. I'd write a function to share the similiarties.  return price.replace("$", "") # have to remove the dollar sign from the price


I don't like this because it implies that you are removing it from across the whole string rather then just the beginning. Instead I'd use return price.lstrip('\$')

    except AttributeError:
return "There is no price"

"""Expects a SKU representing a product at {website}"""
return productBaseUrl + sku

class websiteProduct:


Python style guide recomend CamelCase for class names

    """A product from {website's} created using a newItemDiv in a BeautifulSoup format"""
def __init__(self, productDiv):
self.price = str(getPriceFromDiv(productDiv))
self.brandAndName = str(getBrandAndNameFromDiv(productDiv))


Python style guide recommends lowercase_with_underscores for object attributes.

        self.sku = str(getSkuFromDiv(productDiv))


Stylistically, it'd make more sense for your get function to convert to strings. Especially since many of them already do.

        self.json = json.dumps({'store':"Website Name", 'name':self.brandAndName, 'price':self.price, 'sku':self.sku,

def getPrice(self):
return self.price

def getBrandAndName(self):
return self.brandAndName

def getSku(self):
return self.sku

def getJson(self):
return self.json


In python, we do not have get functions. Just access the attributes directly. If you need more complicated getter logic, you can use properties.

uploadProductsUrl = "http://MySite.com/products.json"
newItems = newItemSoup.find_all('div', {'class': 'productNew'})
productBaseUrl = "http://www.website.com/product?productId="


Some of these are global constants, they should be named in ALL_CAPS, and moved to the top of the file. Other ones shouldn't really be global, and those should become local variables in a main() function.

productList = []
for item in newItems:
product = websiteProduct(item)
productList.append(product)


You can use productList = map(websiteProduct, newItems), or productList = [websiteProduct(item) for item in newItems] or at least combine the last two lines.

for item in productList[0:]:


Why the [0:]? it does nothing

    jsonData = item.getJson()
urllib2.urlopen(request, jsonData)


I recommend actually looking at the response to make sure it at least gave a sucesfull status.

Does it make sense to declare some of the methods here in this script and some of the methods in another script (scraper_tools) when some of those methods are shared by similar scripts?

Absolutely. In fact I'd move anything which looks like it could be generic into there.

My websiteProduct class does all of the work in the initializer part of the class, this feels dirty to me.

For the purpose of this script, the whole class is pointless, because all you really want is to make the json. So I'd just have a function that takes the div and returns the json. In general, having the constructor fetching attributes like that will loose flexibility.

I have a bunch of variables declared in what feels like an arbitrary position within the file. Is this acceptable?

Not really. Global constants should be at the top. Non-globals should be in functions.

The part where this script actually gets started doing things is just hanging out in the open somewhere arbitrarily toward the end of the actual file, is this normal?

Normal yes, correct no. You should put all that stuff in a main() function and add this:

if __name__ == '__main__':
main()


That will only execute the main function when the script is executed directly. You can import it without executing it which may be useful.

Now, thats a bit of a purist answer. For trivial scripts (this one is skirting on the boundary) I'll sometimes ignore that and just write it like you've done.

-
Just the type of information I was looking for. Great for the first response I've received on codereview.stackexchange. –  Ecnalyr Feb 4 '13 at 22:47